European Royalty during World War II:
Living Members of
The Former Royal House of Spain (Alfonsist), 1939-1945
Head of House
Alfonso XIII, King of Spain (1886-1941). Succeeded his father, King Alfonso XII, as King from his birth in 1886 and was deposed in 1931. Considered as a potential Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain, head of the house of Bourbon, and legitimist claimant to the throne of France upon the death in 1936 of his distant cousin, Infante Alfonso Carlos (I) of Spain, Duke of San Jaime (below). Relinquished his rights to the Spanish throne in favor of his third son, Infante Juan, on January 15, 1941. Died on February 28, 1941, in Rome.
Wife: Victoria Eugenie, née Princess of Battenberg (1887- )
Issue: 6 children, including
1.Don Jaime de Borbon y Battenberg, Duke of Segovia (1908- ). Renounced his rights of succession to the throne of Spain in 1933 in favor of his younger brother, Infante Juan, because of his deafness. Considered by some French legitimists to have succeeded as the head of the house of Bourbon and King of France upon the death of his father in 1941.
Wife: Doña Emmanuela, née de Dampierre (1913- )
i.Don Alfonso de Borbon y de Dampierre (1936- ) ii.Don Gonzalo de Borbon y de Dampierre (1937- ) 2.Beatriz, Princess Alessandro Torlonia di Civitelli-Cesi (1909- ) 3.Maria Cristina, Countess Enrico Marone-Cinzano (1911- ) 4.Juan, Infante of Spain, Count of Barcelona (1913- ). Succeeded as claimant to the throne of Spain on his father's renunciation of his rights on January 15, 1941.
Wife: Maria Mercedes, née Princess of Bourbon-Sicily, Infanta of Spain (1910- ). See below.
i.Maria del Pilar, Infanta of Spain (1936- ) ii.Juan Carlos, Infante of Spain (1938- ) iii.Margarita, Infanta of Spain, born on March 6, 1939, in Rome. iv.Alfonso, Infante of Spain, born on October 3, 1941, in Rome.
(Created Infantes of Spain)
Sons-in-Law of King Alfonso XII of Spain (1857-1885)
Charles, Prince of Bourbon-Sicily, Infante of Spain (1870- ). Created Infante of Spain in 1901 upon his marriage to Infanta Maria de las Mercedes, daughter of King Alfonso XII. Became a widower in 1904 and remarried in 1907.
2nd Wife: Louise, née Princess of France (1882- )
Issue of his first marriage: 3 children, including
1.Alfonso, Prince of Bourbon-Sicily, Infante of Spain (1901- )
Wife: Alice, née Princess of Bourbon-Parma (1917- )
i.Theresa, Princess of Bourbon-Sicily, Infanta of Spain (1937- ) ii.Carlos, Prince of Bourbon-Sicily, Infante of Spain (1938- ) iii.Ines, Princess of Bourbon-Sicily, Infanta of Spain, born on February 18, 1940, at Ouchy, Switzerland. 2.Isabella, Countess Jan de Kanty Saryusz von Zamoysc-Zamoyska (1904- )
Issue of his second marriage: 4 children, including
1.Dolores, Princess August Czartoryska (1909- ) 2.Maria Mercedes, Infanta Juan of Spain, Countess of Barcelona (1910- ). See above. 3.Maria de la Esperanza, Princess of Bourbon-Sicily, Infanta of Spain (1914- )
Ferdinand Maria, Prince of Bavaria (1884- ). Created Infante of Spain in 1905 upon his marriage to Infanta Maria Theresia, daughter of King Alfonso XII. Became a widower in 1912 and renounced his rights as Infante of Spain as a result of his unequal second marriage in 1914.
2nd Wife: Maria Luisa, Duchess of Talavera de la Reina, Infanta of Spain, née de Silva y Fernandez de Henestrosa (1880- ). Created Infanta of Spain by King Alfonso XIII in 1927.
Issue of his first marriage:
1.Luis Alfonso, Infante of Spain (1906- ) 2.José Eugene, Infante of Spain (1909- ). Forfeited his rights of succession as a result of his unequal marriage in 1933.
Wife: Doña Maria, Countess of Odiel, née de Mesia y Lesseps (1913- )
i.Doña Maria Cristina de Baviera y de Mesia (1935- ) ii.Don Fernando de Baviera y de Mesia (1937- ) iii.Doña Maria Theresia de Baviera y de Mesia, born on January 11, 1941, in Madrid. iv.Don Luis de Baviera y de Mesia, born on January 26, 1942, in Madrid. 3.Maria de las Mercedes, Infanta of Spain (1911- ) Sisters of Father
Daughters of Queen Ysabel II of Spain (1830-1904)
Maria de la Paz, Princess Ludwig Ferdinand of Bavaria (1862- )
Eulalia, Princess Antonio of Orleans-Borbon, Infanta of Spain, Duchess of Galliera (1864- ). See below.
Sister of Grandmother
Daughter of King Fernando VII of Spain (1784-1833)
Luisa, Infanta of Spain, Princess Antoine of Orleans, Duchess of Montpensier (1832-1897)
Issue: 10 children, including
1.Antonio, Prince of Orleans-Borbon, Infante of Spain, Duke of Galliera (1866-1930)
Wife: Eulalia, née Infanta of Spain (1864- ). See above.
Issue: 3 children, including
i.Alfonso, Prince of Orleans-Borbon, Infante of Spain (1886- ). Renounced the title of Duke of Galliera in 1937 in favor of his son, Don Alvaro.
Wife: Beatrice, née Princess of Great Britain and Ireland, of Edinburgh, and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1884- )
Issue: 3 children, including
a.Don Alvaro de Orleans-Borbon y Saje-Coburgo-Gotha, Duke of Galliera (1910- ). Forfeited his Spanish rights of succession as a result of his unequal marriage in 1937. Succeeded as Duke of Galliera on his father's renunciation of the title in 1937.
Wife: Carla, née Parodi de Delfino (1909- )
1.Doña Gerarda de Orleans-Borbon y Parodi de Delfino, born on August 25, 1939, in Rome. 2.Don Alonso de Orleans-Borbon y Parodi de Delfino, born on August 23, 1941, in Rome. 3.Doña Beatriz de Orleans-Borbon y Parodi de Delfino, born on April 27, 1943, in Seville. b.Ataulfo, Prince of Orleans-Borbon, Infante of Spain (1913- ) ii.Luis Fernando, Prince of Orleans-Borbon, Infante of Spain (1888-1945). Forfeited his rights of succession as a result of his unequal marriage in 1930. Became a widower on July 15, 1943. Died on June 20, 1945, in Paris.
Wife: Marie, widow of Prince Amédée de Broglie, née Say (1857-1943)
Brother of Grandfather
Son of Francisco de Paula, Infante of Spain (1794-1865)
Don Enrique de Borbon y de Borbon, Duke of Seville (1823-1870)
Issue of his unequal marriage: 5 children, including
1.Don Enrique de Borbon y de Castellvi, Duke of Seville (1848-1894)
Wife: Josefa, née Parade y Sibié (1840-1939). Died in Madrid on October 20, 1939.
Issue: 2 children, including
i.Doña Enriqueta de Borbon y Parade, Duchess of Seville (1885- ). See below. 2.Don Francisco de Borbon y de Castellvi (1853-1942). Died in Madrid on February 28, 1942.
2nd Wife: Felisa, née de Léon y Navarro de Balboa (1861-1943). Died in Madrid on September 25, 1943.
Issue of his first marriage: 8 children, including
i.Maria-Luisa, Doña Diego González-Conde y García de la Cuesta (1880- ) ii.Don Francisco de Borbon y de la Torre, Duke of Seville (1882- )
Wife: Doña Enriqueta de Borbon y Parade, Duchess of Seville (1885- ). See above.
Issue: 3 children, including
a.Isabel, Signora Rinaldo Barucci (1908- ) b.Don Francisco de Borbon y de Borbon (1912- ). Married in Madrid on October 4, 1942.
Wife: Enriqueta, née Escasany y Miguel (1925- )
1.Don Francisco de Borbon y Escasany, born in Madrid on November 16, 1943. 2.Don Alfonso Carlos de Borbon y Escasany, born in Madrid on February 10, 1945. iii.Don José de Borbon y de la Torre (1883- )
Issue: 7 children, including
a.Don José Luis de Borbon y Rich (1910-1936)
Wife: Maria, née de Salsas y Puig (1912- )
b.Don Carlos de Borbon y Rich (1915- ). Married in Madrid on February 15, 1939.
Wife: Maria del Milagros, née de Oro y Fernández de Caballos (1916- )
1.Don Carlos de Borbon y de Oro, born at Ciempozuelos on June 26, 1940. 2.Doña Maria del Milagros de Borbon y de Oro, born at Ciempozuelos on November 27, 1941. c.Don Alberto de Borbon y Rich (1916- ). Married at Ildefonso de Madrid on January 30, 1940.
Wife: Maria de Dolores, née Campos y Guerra (1920- )
d.Beatriz, Doña Juan Ricoy y de Pereira (1918- ) e.Don Alonso de Borbon y Rich (1922- ) iv.Doña Maria de los Dolores de Borbon y de la Torre (1887- ) v.Don Enrique de Borbon y de Léon, Marquis of Balboa (1891-1936)
Wife: Isabel, Countess of Esteban, née de Esteban y de Iranzo (1894- )
Issue: 2 children, including
a.Doña Isabel de Borbon y de Esteban, Marchioness of Balboa (1918- ) vi.Don Alfonso de Borbon y de Léon, Marquis of Squilace (1893-1936)
Wife: Maria Luise, née de Caralt y Mas (1898- )
a.Don Alfonso de Borbon y de Caralt, Marquis of Squilace (1926- ) b.Don Luis de Borbon y de Caralt (1927- ) vii.Maria Blanca, Doña Luis de Figueroa y Alonso-Martinez, Countess of Romanones, Countess of la Debesa de Velayos (1898- ) 3.Don Alberto de Borbon y de Castellvi, Duke of Santa Elena (1854-1939). Died in Madrid on January 21, 1939.
3rd Wife: Isabel, née Rodriguez de Castro y Bueno Mena de Castro Zabal García Hidalgo y Pincón (1888- )
Issue of his first marriage:
i.Doña Isabel de Borbon y d'Ast de Novelé (1879- ) ii.Doña Maria de Borbon y d'Ast de Novelé (1880- ) iii.Don Alberto de Borbon y d'Ast de Novelé, Duke of Santa Elena (1883- )
Wife: Maria Luisa, née Pintó y Lecanda (1887- )
a.Don Alfonso de Borbon y Pintó (1909-1938)
Wife: Maria de las Angustias, Marchioness of Santa Fé de Guardiola, née Perez de Pulgar y Alba (1907-1939). Died at Valladolid on June 8, 1939.
1.Don Alberto de Borbon y Perez de Pulgar, Marquis of Santa Fé de Guardiola (1933- ) 2.Doña Maria de las Angustias de Borbon y Perez de Pulgar (1935- ) 3.Don Alfonso de Borbon y Perez de Pulgar (1937- ) b.Maria Luisa, Doña Nicolas de Gereda y Bustamente (1918- ). Married at Valladolid on April 26, 1941.
Brother of Great-Grandfather
Sons of King Carlos IV of Spain (1748-1819)
Carlos (V), Carlist King of Spain, Duke of Molina (1788-1855)
Issue: 3 children, including
1.Juan (III), Carlist King of Spain, Count of Montizon (1822-1887)
i.Carlos (VII), Carlist King of Spain, Duke of Madrid (1848-1909)
2nd Wife: Marie Berthe, née Princess of Rohan (1860-1945). Died in Vienna on January 12, 1945.
Issue of his first marriage: 4 children, including
a.Blanka, Archduchess Leopold Salvator of Austria (1868- ) b.Beatriz, Princess Fabrizio Massimo of Roviano, Duchess of Articoli Corrado (1874- ) c.Alicia, Señora Lino del Prete (1876- ) ii.Alfonso Carlos (I), Carlist King of Spain, Duke of San Jaime (1849-1936). Last recognized Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain.
Wife: Maria das Neves, née Infanta of Portugal (1852-1941) Brothers of Great-Great-Grandfather
Sons of King Carlos III of Spain (1716-1788)
Ferdinand I, King of the Two Sicilies (1751-1825)
House of Bourbon-Sicily
Gabriel, Infante of Spain (1752-1788)
Issue: 3 children, including
1.Pedro, Infante of Spain and Portugal (1786-1812)
i.Sebastian, Infante of Spain and Portugal (1811-1875)
Issue: 5 children, including
a.Don Francisco de Borbon y de Borbon, Duke of Marchena (1861-1923)
Issue of his unequal marriage: 3 children, including
1.Cristina, Mrs Leopold Walford, Duchess of Marchena (1889- ) 2.Maria de los Angelos, Countess Jan Ostrorog, Dame de Balincourt (1895- ) b.Don Pedro de Borbon y de Borbon, Duke of Durcal (1862-1892)
Issue of his unequal marriage:
1.Maria Cristina, Frau Mauritz Willem Raedinck van Vollehove (1886- ) 2.Maria Pia, Doña Rafaelo Padilla y Avida (1888- ) 3.Don Fernando de Borbon y de Madan, Duke of Durcal (1891-1944). Died in Madrid on March 29, 1944.
Wife: Maria, née Bosch-Labros y Blat (1890- )
i.Maria Cristina, Señora Antenor Patino y Rodriguez, Duchess of Durcal (1913- ) ii.Leticia, Donna Paolo Venturi-Ginori-Lisci, Marchioness of Riparbella (1915- ). Married at Rome on November 28, 1940. c.Don Luis de Borbon y de Borbon, Duke of Ansola (1864-1889)
Issue of his unequal marriage:
1.Don Luis de Borbon y Bernaldo de Quirba, Duke of Ansola (1887-1945). Died at Biarritz on May 18, 1945.
Wife: Beatrice Mary, née Harrington (1891- )
2.Don Manfredo de Borbon y Bernaldo de Quirba, Duke of Hernani (1889- ). Widowed in 1925.
Brother of Great-Great-Great-Grandfather
Son of King Felipe V of Spain (1683-1746)
Philippe, Duke of Parma (1720-1765)
House of Bourbon-Parma
LINE ONE: BOURBON
LUIS ALFONSO LUIS ALFONSO Gonzalo Victor Manuel Marco, cr Duke of Touraine by his father 19 Sep 1981, and Duke of Bourbon 27 Sep 1984, succ his father as primogeniture representative of the House of France, and assumed title of DUKE OF ANJOU and the Headship of the House of France, and as such Grand Master of the Royal Orders 2 Feb 1989 (Kt of Holy Spirit by his grdfather Apr 1974), b at Madrid 25 Apr 1974.
Issue of Alfonso Jaime Marcelino Manuel Victor María, cr Duke of Bourbon by his father 25 Nov 1950, and later cr Duke of Burgundy, succ his father Infant Jaime as primogeniture representative of the House of France 20 Mar 1975, and assumed the title of Duke of Anjou and Head of the House of France 3 Aug 1975, Bailiff Gd Cross Constantinian Order of Saint George, Gd Cross Orders of Isabel the Catholic, Saint Maurice & Lazarus, Polar Star of Sweden, Kt Hon & Dev of Sov Mil Order of Malta, b 20 Apr 1936; d accidentally at Beaver Creek, Colorado, 30 Jan 1989, cr Duke of Cadiz with the qualification of Royal Highness, Spain, 22 Nov 1972 (title limited ad personam Nov 1987), Spanish Ambassador to Sweden 1970-73, President Spanish Institute of Culture 1973; m in at El Pardo 8 Mar 1972 (separated 16 nov 1979, m diss by div at Madrid 14 May 1983 and religiously annulled there 16 Dec 1986), María del Carmen (b at Madrid 26 Feb 1951; m 2ndly at Rueil-Malmaison, Dept Hauts-de-Seine 11 Dec 1984, Jean Baptiste Mario Rossi, Antiquarian; separated. Sep 1994, m diss by div 20 Jun 1995), dau of Cristóbal Martinez y Bordiu, 10th Marquess of Villaverde and María del Carmen Franco y Polo, Duchess of Franco (dau of Generalisimo Francisco Franco y Bahamonde, Spanish Head of State).
Francisco Alfonso Jaime Cristobal Victor José Gonzalo Cecilio, cr Duke of Brittany by his grdfather 13 Oct 1973, and Duke of Bourbon by his father 3 Aug 1975, b at Madrid 22 Nov 1972; d (following an automobile accident) at Pamplona 7 Feb 1984.
Issue of Infant Jaime Luitpoldo Isabelino Enrique Alejandro Alberto Alfonso Victor Acacio Pedro Pablo María, b at San Ildefonso 23 Jun 1908; d at Saint Gallen, Switzerland 20 Mar 1975, renounced his right of succession to the Throne of Spain for himself and his descendants 21 Jun 1933 (and confirmed this renunciation 23 Jul 1945, and 17 Jun 1947), following the death of his father, King Alfonso XIII of Spain (see SPAIN), assumed the title of Duke of Anjou as primogeniture representative of the House of France, 28 Mar 1946, proclaiming himself Head of the House, cr Duke of Segovia by his father 4 Mar 1935, Kt Golden Fleece, Gd Cross Charles III, Gd Cross Isabel the Catholic, Gd Cmdr Order of Calatrava, Kt Order of Saint Januarius, Kt Elephant, Bailiff Gd Cross Constantinian Order of Saint George.
Gonzalo Victor Alfonso José Bonifacio Antonio Santos, cr Duke of Aquitaine by his father 21 Sep 1972, b at Rome 5 Jun 1937; Kt of the Holy Spirit and Saint Michel by his father, m 1stly at Puerta Vallarta, Mexico 28 Jan 1983 (m not registered at Spanish Consulate in Mexico and consequently invalid in Spain, separation 13 Apr 1983 m diss by div at ... 18 Apr 1984), Carmen (b at Madrid 23 Apr 1947; m 1stly at Madrid 28 Dec 1970 Juan Antonio de la Mora; that m diss by div 1978), dau of Rafael Harto and of Felisa Montealegre. He m 2ndly at Madrid, 25 Jun (civ) and Olmedo, nr Valladolid 30 Jun (relig) 1984 (separated at Madrid 7 Mar 1986 / 5 May 1987; m diss by div at Madrid 31 Jan 1989; m annulled at Florence .. Oct 1994, conf May 1995), María de las Mercedes (b at Valencia 15 Oct 1963), dau of Luis Licer and María de las Mercedes García y Estrada. He m 3rdly at Genoa, Italy 12 Dec 1992 (civ) and at Rome 17 Sep 1995 (relig), Emanuela (b at Genoa 22 Mar 1960), dau of Vincenzo Pratolongo, and Sofia Hardouin, of the Dukes of Gallese.
(Paseo de la Habana 15, 28036 Madrid, Spain).
(Victoria Jeanne Joséphine Pierre Marie) Emmanuela (b at Rome 8 Nov 1913; m 2ndly civilly at Vienna 21 Nov 1949, Antonio Sozzani who was b at Milan 12 Jul 1918, Banker), dau of Roger, Viscount de Dampierre, 2nd Duke of San Lorenzo and Vittoria Ruspoli of the Princes of Poggio-Suasa, m (non dynastic in Spain) 1stly at Rome 4 Mar 1935 (separated 1939, and m diss by div at Bucharest 6 May 1947 confirmed at Turin 3 Jun 1949, neither divorces recognized in Spain), the Infant Jaime, Duke of Segovia, later Duke of Anjou (see above), retained the title Duchess of Anjou and Segovia.
(Piazza di Campitelli 3, 00186 Rome, Italy)
Second Branch (SPAIN)
Third Branch (BOURBON, LINE OF INFANTE DON FRANCISCO DE PAULA)
Descended from Infant Francisco de Paula of Bourbon (b at Madrid 10 Mar 1794; d at Madrid 13 Aug 1865), yr son of Charles IV, King of Spain, and Princess Luisa Carlotta of the Two Sicilies (b 24 Oct 1804; m 15 Apr 1819; d 29 Jan 1844).
H.H. Enrique María Fernando Carlos Francisco Luis, Infant of Spain, 1st Duke of Seville & Grandee of Spain (RD18 Apr 1823), b at Alcazar Real de Sevilla 17 Apr 1823; d (in a duel with his cousin the Duke of Montpensier) Alarcón, nr Madrid 12 Mar 1870, m at Rome (non-dynastic marriage in Spain) 6 May 1847, Elena María de la Asunción de Castellvi y Shelly (b at Valencia 16 Oct 1821; d at Madrid 29 Dec 1863), dau of Antonio de Castellvi y Fernández de Córdoba, 9th Count of Castellá, etc, and Margarita Shelly, and had with other issue,
1. Francisco de Paula María de la Trinidad Enrique Gabriel Rafael Edmundo Buenaventura, b at Toulouse 29 Mar 1853; d at Madrid 28 Mar 1942, General, m 1stly at Havana, Cuba 15 Sep 1877, María Luisa de la Torre y Bassave (b at Guamutas, Cuba 14 May 1856; d at Madrid 7 jun 1887), dau of José María de la Torre and María de los Dolores de Bassave). He m 2ndly at Madrid 15 Feb 1890, Felisa Carolina Rafaela María de Léon y Navarro de Balboa (b at Havana, Cuba 14 Jun 1861; d at Madrid 25 Sep 1943), only dau of Carlos de Léon y Navarrete, by Felisa Navarro de Balboa y Sánchez-Yebra, 2nd Marchioness of Balboa, and had by both marriages, among whom:
1). H.E. Francisco de Paula María Enrique Alfonso José Rafael Miguel Gabriel, b at Madrid 16 Jan 1882; d at Madrid 6 Dec 1952, Lt-Gen, Mil Gov of Madrid, Member of Cortes, m at Madrid 21 Aug 1907 his cousin H.E. Enriqueta de Bourbon (Borbón) y Parade (b at Madrid 18 Jun 1885; d Valencia 5 Nov 1968), 4th Duchess of Seville & Grandee of Spain (succeeded her sister 24 Jun 1919), and had with other issue,
H.E. Francisco de Paula Enrique María Luis, b at Santander 16 Nov 1912; d at Villaviciosa de Odon, Madrid 18 Nov 1995, Army offr, renounced succession to title of Duke of Seville & Grandee of Spain in favor of his son 1968, m 1stly at Madrid 4 Oct 1942 /or 4 Nov 1941 (m annulled) Enriqueta Escasany y Miquel (b at Malaga 13 Oct 1925; d at Madrid 16 May 1962), dau of Ignacio Escasany y Auzeill and Enriqueta de Miquel y Mas, 2nd Marchioness of la Pobla de Claramunt. He m 2ndly at Madrid 15 Mar 1967 María Josefa García de Lobez y Salvador (b at Madrid 11 Dec 1928), dau of Nicolas García de Lobez and Dolores Salvador. He had issue,
1. H.E. Francisco de Paula Enrique, 5th Duke of Seville & Grandee of Spain (BO 10 Dec 1974), Banker, b at Madrid 16 Nov 1943, m. at Baden-Baden (civ) 5 Jul, and (relig) 7 Jul 1973 (m diss by div at Madrid 30 Jun 1989), Beatrix Wilhelmina Paula, Countess of Hardenberg (b at Schloss Donaueschingen, Baden-Wurttemberg 28 Jun 1947), dau of Gunther, Count of Hardenberg, by H.S.H. Princess María Josefa zu Fürstenberg. He m 2ndly (civ) at Vienna 19 Oct 1991 (sep Madrid 17 Jun 1993) Isabel Eugenia (b at Vienna 23 Jun 1959), dau of Franz M. Karanitsch and Tatjana Cimloff Karacevcev, and has issue By 1st,
(Triana 12, 28016 Madrid, Spain)
1). Olivia Enricheta María Joséfa, b at London 6 Apr 1974.
2). Cristina Elena, b at Madrid 2 Sep 1975.
3). Francisco de Paula Joaquín, b at Madrid 21 Jan 1979.
2. Alfonso Carlos, b at Madrid 10 Feb 1945, m at Madrid 2 Jul 1971, María Luisa Yordi y Villacampa (b at Madrid 15 Apr 1949), dau of Lucian Yordi and María Luisa Villacampa, and had issue,
1). Alfonso Nicolas Enrique, b at Madrid 16 Nov 1973.
2). Alexandrina María Luisa, b at Madrid 24 May 1976.
3. Enrique Ignacio, b at Madrid 18 Mar 1970.
2). José María Enrique Alberto, b at Madrid 16 Dec 1883; d at Madrid 28 Oct 1962, Colonel infantry, m at Madrid 21 Jul 1909 María Luisa Rich y Carbajo (b at Madrid 22 Feb 1890; murdered by her husband at Madrid 5 Feb 1926), dau of Narciso Rich y Martínez and Estrella Carbajo y Gómez de Terán, and had with other issue,
(1). José Luis Francisco Narciso, b at Madrid 18 Jul 1910; exec by Republican forces at Gerona 29 Aug 1936; m at Montserrat, Barcelona 15 Nov 1933 María de Salsa y Puig (b at Barcelona 14 Feb 1912), dau of Fernando de Salsa y Armangol and Ana Puig y Zaragoza.
(2). Carlos Luis José Francisco, b at Madrid 22 Mar 1915; d at Madrid 12 Nov 1978, m at Madrid 15 Feb 1939 María de los Milagros de Oro y Fernández de Cevallos (b at Ciempzuelos, Madrid, 12 May 1916; d at Madrid 20 Apr 1993), dau of Pascual de Oro y Sanchíz and Carolina Fernández de Cevallos y Fernández de Cevallos, and had issue,
1. Carlos José María de los Dolores, b at Madrid 26 Jun 1940.
2. María de los Milagros, b at Madrid 27 Nov 1941, m at Madrid 20 Dec 1965, Juan Ignacio Lopez Pérez (b at Bilbao 24 May 1931), son of Miguel Lopez and Amelia Pérez.
(3). Alberto José Luis Fernando, b at Madrid 2 Nov 1916, naturalised French as Albert de Bourbon (24 Mar 1970), m at Madrid 30 Jan 1950, María de los Dolores Campos y Guerra (b at Cuntis Piñeiro, Pontevedra, 4 Jun 1920), dau of José Campos y García and Manuela Guerra Puente, and has issue,
1. Enrique José, b at Madrid, 11 Jan 1948 (legitimated by his parents subsequent marriage).
2. Beatriz Eugenia, b at Madrid, 6 Dec 1949 (legitimated by her parents subsequent marriage); m 1stly at Paris (civ) 27 and (relig) 28 Apr 1972 (m diss by div 19 Nov 1979) Jean Baptiste Bernard Venturini (b at Vichy 3 Nov 1944). She m 2ndly at Copenhagen 28 Dec 1979 Anders Jeffert (b at Copenhagen 17 Dec 1947).
3. María Luisa, b at Madrid, 19 Dec 1951; m 1stly at Cancun, Mexico .. Jan 1979 (m diss by div . 1981) Diego San Juan. She m 2ndly Luis Zuloega Gallejo.
4. Juan Carlos, b at La Coruna 28 Oct 1953; d at La Coruna 12 Dec 1953.
(4). Beatriz Josefa Luisa, b at Madrid 13 Jun 1918; m at Madrid 5/6 May 1935 Juan Ricoy y de Pereira (b at Cambados, Pontevedra, Galicia 26 May 1908; d at Luga, nr Madrid 19 Jan 1964).
(Padilla 22, 28006 Madrid, Spain)
(5). Alvaro José Luis Francisco Narcisio, b at Tetouan, Morocco 2 Jan 1922; m at Rute, Córdoba, 19 Jun 1961 María del Carmen Cruz Villen (b at Rute 26 Feb 1930), dau Agustin Cruz Pérez and Carmen Villen Seija, and has issue,
(Pedro Antonio de Alarcón 37, 18004 Granada, Spain)
1. María de los Milagros, b at Rute 9 May 1962, m at Granada 28 Nov 1987 Manuel Molina y Muñoz (b at Granada 6 Dec 1959).
(Paseo de la Pampa 1, 28940 Fuenlabrada, Madrid, Spain)
2. Maria del Carmen (twin), b at Rute 9 May 1962; m Granada 6 Dec 1988 Gustavo-Adolfo Porras (y) Chavarino (b at Granada 13 Feb 1965).
(Calle Ancha 73, 14700 Palma del Rio, Spain)
3). Enrique María Francisco de Paula, 3rd Marquess of Balboa (RD 24 May 1917), b at Madrid 6 Jul 1891; exec by Republican forces, at Aravaca, nr Madrid 29 Oct 1936, with his son and brother, m at Madrid 15 Jun 1917, Isabel de Esteban y Iranzo, 3rd Countess of Esteban (b at Madrid 6 Jun 1894; d at Madrid 14 Nov 1964), dau of Rafael de Esteban y La Torre, 2nd Count of Esteban, and Luisa de Iranzo y Daguerre, and had issue,
(1). Isabel María de las Mercedes, b at Madrid 23 Sep 1918, succ father as 4th Marquess of Balboa (BO 6 Apr 1956), and her mother as 4th Countess of Esteban (BO 4 Jan 1966).
(Velazqauez 23, 28001 Madrid, Spain)
(2). Jaime, b at Madrid 23 Apr 1921; exec by Republican forces at Aravaca, nr Madrid, 29 Oct 1936.
4). H.E. Alfonso María Francisco Martín Felix Joaquín Rafael Miguel, 2nd Marquess of Squillache and Grandee of Spain (14 Aug 1915), b at Madrid 24 Oct 1893; exec by Republican forces at Aravaca, nr Madrid, 29 Oct 1936, Gent of Chamber to Alfonso XIII, m at Barcelona 3 Jul 1925, María Luisa de Caralt y Mas (b at Barcelona 23 May 1898; d at Madrid 11 Oct 1981), dau of Baldomero de Caralt y Sala, former Gov Minister, by María de Mas y Martí, and had issue,
(1). H.E. Alfonso Luis, 3rd Marquess of Squillache & Grandee of Spain (BO 2 Mar 1951), b at Madrid 5 May 1926; Diplomat, Cdr Order of Isabel the Catholic, Offr Order of Civil Merit, Kt Order of Christ of Portugal, Gd Offr Orders of Phoenix of Greece, and Orange-Nassau of the Netherlands, Cdr Order of Saint Olav Norway, m at Alicante 6 Jan 1958, H.E. María Teresa Rojas y Roca de Togores, Countess of Casa Rojas (BO 16 Aug 1974) (b at Madrid 7 Feb 1929), resigned succession to titles of Marchioness of the Bosch de Ares & Grandee of Spain, and of Beniel, and Countess of Torrellano, in favor of her children, dau of H.E. Carlos de Rojas y Moreno, 8th Marquess of the Bosch de Ares & Grandee of Spain, etc, by María Teresa Roca de Togores y Pérez del Pulgar, and has issue,
(Factor 14, 28013 Madrid, Spain)
1. H.E. María José, 10th Marchioness of the Bosch de Ares and Grandee of Spain (BO 7 Oct 1994), b at Madrid 27 Dec 1958; m at Berne, Switzerland 11 Apr 1987 Ramon de la Cierva y García Bermudez (b at Madrid 28 Mar 1956), Member of the Deputation of Grandezas y Titulos del Reino.
(Tamayo y Baus 6, 28004 Madrid, Spain)
2. Ana Isabel, 13th Marchioness of Beniel (BO 27 Nov 1996), b at Madrid 18 Feb 1960; m at San Lorenzo de Escorial, nr Madrid 7 Jan 1989 Daniel Tobár y Rojas (b at Santiago de Chile 28 Sep 1950).
(Juliana 18, El Escorial, 28280 Madrid, Spain)
3. María Leticia, 8th Countess of Torellano (BO 5 Oct 1994), b at Madrid 4 Jan 1962.
(2). Luis Alfonso, Air force offr, b at Barcelona 11 Sep 1927; k in an air crash Hoyo del Manzanares, nr Madrid 6 Jul 1952.
2. H.E. Alberto Enrique María Vicente Ferrer Francisco de Paula Antonio, cr 1st Duke of Santa Elena & Grandee of Spain (RD 31 Jul 1917), and 1st Marquess of Santa Elena & Grandee of Spain (RD 24 Oct 1878), b at Madrid 22 Feb 1854; d at Madrid 21 Jan 1939, Kt Order of the Golden Fleece, Capt-Gen of Valladolid and the Canary Islands, Lt-Gen, m 1stly at Beaumont de Lomagne, Tarn et Garonne (civ) 26 (and relig) 27 Nov 1878 Marguerite Joséphine d'Ast (b at Beaumont de Lomagne 27 Jun 1855; d Château de Bonneville, Sérignac 12 Aug 1915), dau of Louis Hélène Oscar d'Ast, Baron of Novelé, and Francisca de Paula de Castellvi y Shelly Fernández de Córdoba. He m 2ndly at Madrid 30 Jan 1918 Clotilde Gallo y Diaz de Bustamente (b at Madrid 3 Jun 1869; exec by the Republican forces at Madrid 18 Dec 1936), dau of Miguel Gallo y Ruíz, and Manuela Diez de Bustamente, widow of José María de la Viesca, 2nd Marquess of Viesca de la Serra. He m 3rdly at Madrid 5 Jun 1937, Isabel Rodríguez de Castro y Bueno, of the Marquesses of Bueno Mena (b at Seville 19 Apr 1888; d at Madrid 7 May 1947). He had issue by his 1st wife, among others, one son,
H.E. Alberto María Francisco de Paula Enrique Vicente Ferrer Luis Isidoro Benigno Oscar, 2nd Duke and Marquess of Santa Elena & Grandee of Spain (14 Apr 1956), b at Madrid 12 Feb 1883; d at Valladolid 1 Dec 1959; m at Valladolid 10 Jul 1908, María Luisa Catarina Sofia Pintó y Lecanda (b at Valladolid 30 Apr 1887; d at Madrid 13 Dec 1976), dau of José Antonio Pintó y Lara, of the Counts of Añorga, and María de Lecanda y Toca, and had issue,
(1). H.E. Alfonso María Alberto Luis José de Calasanz Antonio de Padua Javier Pedro Regalado, b at Valladolid 27 Aug 1909; d from wounds at Lerida 25 Dec 1938, m at Madrid 19 Mar 1933, María de las Angustias Pérez del Pulgar y Alba, 10th Marchioness of Santa Fé de Guardiola (1925) (b at Valladolid 17 Oct 1907; d at Valladolid 8 Jun 1939), dau of Cristóbal Pérez del Pulgar y Ramírez de Arellano, 1st Marquess of Abaicon, Colonel, and Felisa Alba y Bonifaz, and had issue,
1. H.E. Alberto Enrique Alfonso María Crisóbal Luis Fernando, 3rd Duke and Marquess of Santa Elena & Grandee of Spain (2 Apr 1960), 11th Marquess of Santa Fé de Guardiola (2 May 1958), b at Seville 23 Nov 1933; d 28 Jun 1995 m at Valladolid 27 Jun 1959 Eugenia Sánchiz y Mendaro (b at Madrid 10 Oct 1934), dau of Gonzalo María Sánchiz y Calatayud, 3rd Marquess of Montemira, and María de la Concepción Mendaro y Romero, and had issue,
(General Martínez Campos 39, 28010 Madrid, Spain)
1). Alberto, b at Madrid 30 Apr 1960; d at Madrid 15 May 1960.
2). H.E. Alfonso Gonzalo, 4th Duke and Marquess of Santa Elena & Grandee of Spain (29 Nov 1995), 12th Marquess of Santa Fé de Guardiola (24 Sep 1981), b at Madrid 31 Mar 1961; m 1stly (civ) at The Hague 20 Jul 1981 (m annulled .), Patricia Doornkamp (b at The Hague 23 Feb 1958); m 2ndly at Madrid 11 Feb 1993, María Escriva de Romaní y Soto (b at Madrid 29 Dec 1956), dau of Luis Escriva de Romaní, Count of Glimes de Brabante & Grandee of Spain, and María Soto y Colón de Carvajal, and has issue,
(Paseo de la Castellana 98, 28046 Madrid, Spain)
(1). María, b at Madrid 10 Jan 1994.
(2). Eugenia, b at Madrid 10 Jan 1994 (twin)
(3). Alfonso, b at Madrid 2 Feb 1995.
3). María Luisa, b Madrid 22 IV 1962.
2. María de las Angustias Margarita Immacolada, b at Seville 19 Aug 1935, entered Dominican Order May 1956.
3. Alfonso María José Cristobal Alberto, Army offr, b at Valladolid 4 Jun 1937; m at Seville 4 Oct 1961 (separated officially) Inés de Medina y Atienza (b at Seville 17 Dec 1939, Avenida de Portugal, 17 Seville, Spain), dau of Lt Col Fernando de Medina, 6th Count of Campo Rey, and Mariana Atienza y Benjumea, and has issue,
(Cortijo Rompezapatos, Centra de Sevilla a Mérida, Seville, Spain)
1). Alfonso, b at Seville 27 Apr 1963.
2). Fernando, b at Seville 15 Jun 1966.
3). Jaime, b at Seville 19 Jul 1971.
(2). María Luisa, b San Sebastian 6 Sep 1918, m Valladolid 26 Sep 1941 Nicolas Gereda y de Bustamante (b Valladolid 11 Apr 1916).
Branch Two: BOURBON-TWO SICILIES
BOURBON-SPAIN Fourth Branch (Infant Gabriel)
Descendants of the Infant Gabriel (b 11 May 1752; d 23 Nov 1788) yr brother of grt-grt-grt grandfather, and son of Charles III, King of Spain and the Indies (b 20 Jan 1716; d 13/14 Dec 1788), whose only surv son, Pedro Carlos, Infant of Spain and Portugal (so recognized in Portugal 18 Feb 1785) (b 18 Jun 1786; d 4 Jul 1812) m 13 May 1810 María Teresa de Braganza, Infanta of Portugal (b 29 Apr 1793; d 17 Jan 1874), and had an only son (Highness, the qualification of cadets of the House of Spain before 1876).
Sebastián Gabriel María Carlos Juan José Francisco Javier de Paula Miguel Bartolomé de San Geminiano Rafael Gonzaga, Infant of Spain and Portugal, b at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 4 Nov 1811; d at Pau 14 Feb 1875, m 1stly at Aranjuez, nr Madrid, 26 May 1832 Princess Amelia of the Two Sicilies (b at Madrid 25 Feb 1818; d at Pozzuoli, Naples, 6 Nov 1857), dau of King Francis I and his 2nd wife the Infanta Isabel of Spain. He m 2ndly at Madrid 19 Nov 1860 Infanta María Cristina of Spain (b at Madrid, 5 Jun 1833; d at Madrid 19 Jan 1902), dau of the Infant Francisco de Paula of Spain and Princess Luisa Carlota of the Two Sicilies. He had issue by his second marriage, five sons (who until their unequal marriages enjoyed the titles of Serene Highness and Infants of Portugal, and of whom the 4th son, Alfonso, was recognized as Principe de Borbón by King Alfonso XIII, 1933), of whom the eldest were,
1. H.E. Francisco María Isabel Gabriel Pedro de Alcantára Sebastián Alfonso, b at Madrid 20 Aug 1861; d at Neuilly-sur-Seine, 17 Nov 1923, cr Duke of Marchena & Grandee of Spain by RD 4 Apr, conf 30 Jul 1885, m at Madrid 7 Jan 1886 (non dynastic in Spain) María del Pilar Antonia Angela Patrocinio Fermina Simona de Muguiro y Beruete (b at Madrid 17 Jan 1869; d at Monte Carlo 24 Feb 1926; m 2ndly Château de Balincourt, Seine, 22 Sep 1924 as his 2nd wife, Sir Basil Zaharoff, GCB, GCVO, GBE, b at Phanar, Turkey, 20 Oct 1850; d at Monte Carlo 27 Nov 1936, son of Vassili Zaharoff and Helena Antoniadi), cr Duchess of Villafranca de los Caballeros & Grandee of Spain (for life, RD 14 Jun 1924), dau of Fermín de Muguiro y Azcárate, 1st Count of Muguiro, Senator of the Kingdom, and Angela de Beruete y Moret, Countess of Barciles, and had with other issue
1). H.E. María Cristina Francisca de Asís María del Pilar Sebastiana Fermina María de los Angeles Natalia, 2nd Duchess of Marchena & Grandee of Spain (BO 13 Apr 1927), b at Paris 27 Jul 1889; d at London 3 Oct 1981, m at Paris (civ) 9 and (relig) 11 Nov 1911, Leopold Herbert George Walford, b at Antwerp 13 May 1881; d at London 28 Nov 1958, son of George Paget Walford and Laure De Lobel.
2). María de los Angeles (Angela) Fermina Sebastiana María Cristina Francisca de Asís María del Pilar, b at Paris 24 Jul 1895; d at Albano, Italy, 19 Jul 1964 (styled Princess Angèle de Bourbon, Countess Ostroróg), m at Paris (civilly) 12 Jun, and at Château de Balincourt (relig) 15 Jun 1920, Count Jan Ostroróg (b at Constantinople 28 Mar 1896; d at Constantinople 19 Dec 1975; he m 2ndly Kristine Urbaneck), son of Count Leon Valerien Ostroróg and of Jeanne Marie Lorando.
2. H.E. Pedro de Alcántara María de Guadelupe Teresa Isabel Francisco de Asís Gabriel Sebastián Cristino, b at Madrid 12 Dec 1862; d at Paris 5 Jan 1892, cr Duke of Durcal and Grandee of Spain (RD 4 Apr and 25 Nov 1885), m at Madrid (non dynastic in Spain) 6 Apr 1885 María de la Caridad Ignacia Carolina Isabel Constancia María de los Dolores de Madan y Uriondo (b at Guantanamo, Cuba, 19 Sep 1867; d at Berlin 10 Feb 1912; m 2ndly at Grenada 2 Nov 1904 Louis Ferdinand Bessières, who d at Madrid 4 Sep 1951), dau of Gen Juan Antonio de Madan y Uriondo, and Francisca de Uriondo y de Saavedra Dugi, and had issue,
1). María Cristina Alfonsa Francisca de Asís Sebastiana Isabel, b at Madrid 10 Nov 1886; d at Madrid 14 Dec 1985, m at Madrid 14 Apr 1921 H.E. Maurits Willem Raedinck van Vollenhoven, Lord of Kleverskerke, Envoy & Min of the Netherlands to Spain (b at Haarlem 25 Nov 1882; d at Madrid 29 May 1976), son of Maurits van Vollenhoven, and Jonkvrouwe María van der Polle.
2). María Pia Luisa Caridad Francisca de Paula Francisca de Asís Petra de Alcántara Ignacia Cristina Isabel Alfonsa Javiera Bautista Carlota Sebastiana Teresa María de Guadelupe María de los Dolores Bernarda Providencia, b at Madrid 20 Aug 1888; d at Buenos Aires 14 Jul 1969; m 1stly at Paris 26 May 1907 Rafael Padilla y Avila (b at Tucuman, Argentina, 4 Jan 1887; d at Buenos Aires 23 Apr 1945), son of Isaias Padilla y de la Fuente and María de las Mercedes de Avila y Frias. She m 2ndly at Buenos Aires 29 Mar 1966 Guillermo Ramon de Archaval (b at Rosario Santa Fé 24 Sep 1884; d at Buenos Aires 19 Nov 1971).
3). H.E. Fernando Sebastían, 2nd Duke of Durcal and Grandee of Spain (BO 24 Jun 1908), b at Paris 4 Feb 1891; d at Madrid 28/29 Mar 1944, Chamberlain to King Alfonso XIII, m at Barcelona 19 Oct 1912, María Leticia Bosch-Labrús y Blat (b at Barcelona 14 Mar 1890; d at Madrid 29 Nov 1981), dau of Pedro Bosch-Labrús, 1st Viscount of Bosch-Labrús (RD 25 May 1926), Senator, and Josefa Blat y Caparols, and had issue,
(1). H.E. María Cristina, 3rd Duchess of Durcal & Grandee of Spain (BO 31 Oct 1950), b at Madrid 15 May 1913; m at Madrid 8 Apr 1931 (m diss by div 10 Dec 1959), Antenor Patiño y Rodríguez, Diplomat and Industrialist (b at Oturo, Bolivia, 12 Oct 1896; d at New York 2/3 Feb 1982; m 2ndly at London 8 Jan 1960, Béatrice de Rivera, b at Gragnano Trebbiense, Italy, 1 Aug 1905).
(Place des Vosges, 75004 Paris)
(2). Leticia Fernanda, b at Madrid 22 Jun 1915; m 1stly at Rome 27 Nov 1940 (m annulled by the Holy See 1956) Paolo Venturi Ginori Lisci, Marquess of Riparbella, Patrician of Florence (b at Florence 22 Apr 1915; he m 2ndly 10 Oct 1957 Amalia Borgnino), son of Roberto Venturi Ginori Lisci, Marquess of Riparbella, Patrician of Florence, and Margherita Abro Pagratide (Via Ghibellina 73, Firenze, Italy). She m 2ndly at Zurich, 10 Jul 1958, Stefano Franceschi (b at Florence 16 Jun 1903; d at Geneva 1 Feb 1981).
3. H.E. Luis Jesus María Isabel José Francisco de Asís Sebastián Cristino, cr 1st Duke of Ansola & Grandee of Spain (30 May 1886, and RD 15 Mar 1887), b at Madrid 17 Jan 1864; d at Algiers 24 Jan 1889; m at Madrid 31 May 1886, Ana Germana Pia María los Desemparados Josefa Joaquina Bernaldo de Quiros y Muñoz (b at Palencia, Spain, 19 Mar 1866; d at Vitoria, Spain, 11 Sep 1934; she m 2ndly at Irun, 30 Nov 1890 Manuel Mendez de Vigo), dau of José María Bernaldo de Quiros y Gonzalez de Cienfuegos, 8th Marquess of Campo Sagrado, Señor of La Casa de Quiros, Senator, Ambassador of Spain, Gentleman of the Queen, and María Cristina Muñoz y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, 1st Marchioness of La Isabella and Viscountess of La Dehesilla, and had issue,
1). Luis Alfonso Francisco José María, 2nd Duke of Ansola & Grandee of Spain (RD 30 Oct 1896), and 2nd Marquess of Atarfe, b at Paris 9 May 1887; Serene Highness (concession of King Carlos I of Portugal, no date) d at Biarritz 19 May 1942; m at London 16 Jul 1914 (separated) Beatrice Mary Harrington (b at London 1891; d at Madrid 6 Jan 1979), dau of James Harcourt Harrington.
2). H.E. Manfredo Luis Jesus, 1st Duke of Hernani (22 Jan and RD 11 Aug 1914), 3rd Duke of Ansola and 3rd Marquess of Atarfe (BO 4 Apr 1952) & three times Grandee of Spain, b at Alger, France 3 Feb 1889; d at Madrid 6 Jan 1979, Kt Order of Saint Januarius, Gd Cross Orders of Charles III, Christ of Portugal, Saint Benedict of Aviz of Portugal, Bailiff Gd Cross Constantinian Order of Saint George, Bailiff Gd Cross Hon & Dev & Pres Sp Assoc Sov Mil Order of Malta, m 1stly at Madrid 31 Jan 1920 María Leticia Santa Marina y Romero (b at La Coruna, 15 Aug 1889; d at Malaga 7 May 1925), dau of José Santa Marina y Pérez and Emilia Romero y García. He m 2ndly at Madrid 27 Jun 1950 María Teresa Maríategui y Arteaga (b at Madrid 9 Jun 1914; d 20 Sep 1996), Gd cross of Hon & Dev Sov Mil Order of Malta, dau of H.E. Jaime Maríategui y Pérez de Barradas, 9th Marques de Quintana de las Torres & Grandee of Spain, and María Josefa de Arteaga y Echagüe, 15th Marchioness of la Guardia.
4. H.E. (H.S.H.) Alfonso María Isabel Francisco Eugenio Gabriel Pedro Sebastián Palayo Fernando Francisco de Paula Pio Miguel Rafael Juan José Joaquín Ana Zacarias (and seventy-nine other forenames), b at Buen Retiro Palace, Madrid 15 nov 1866; d at Madrid 28 Apr 1934, recognized as Princípe de Borbón by the Duke of San Jaime, 1933, m (secretly) at Madrid (m diss by div ..) Julia Mendez y Morales, without issue.
BRANCH THREE: BOURBON-PARMA
B: HOUSE OF ORLÉANS
Branch of Orléans-Braganza
Branch of Orléans (Galliera)
THE ROYAL HOUSE OF BOURBON
BRANCH THREE: BOURBON-PARMA
In 1545 Pope Paul III (Alessandro Farnese) ceded the towns of Parma and Piacenza to his natural son Pier Luigi Farnese (d 10 Sep 1547) and the Emperor Karl V raised them into a Duchy the same year (later leading to a dispute whether the right of investiture rested with the Pope or Emperor). The Farnese male line became extinct on the death of Antonio Francesco 20 Jan 1731. His niece and heiress Isabella Farnese, wife of Felipe V, King of Spain, transmitted her rights to her son Charles (Carlos, later King Carlos III of Spain), who became Duke of Parma and Piacenza in 1731 (giving up the Duchy by the Treaty of Vienna of 1736 but retaining the title and rights of succession to the Farnese inheritance, which included the Grand Magistery of the Constantinian Order). By the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle of 1748, Isabella's second son Infant Philip (Filippo) (b 15 Mar 1720; d 18 Jul 1765) was established as Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla (this former Gonzaga Duchy an addition to the State). He was succ by his son Ferdinand (b 20 Jan 1751; d 9 Oct 1802), cr Infant of Spain 8 Oct 1765; Parma was incorporated into France under the terms of Treaty of Aranjuez 21 Mar 1801. Ferdinand's son and successor Lodovic (b 5 Jul 1773; d 27 May 1803), was cr Infant of Spain 30 Nov 1795 and by the Treaty of Aranjuez in compensation for Parma was given Tuscany, following the deposition of its Grand Duke, which became the Kingdom of Etruria. He was succ by Charles Lodovic (Carlo Lodovico, b 22 Dec 1799; d 16 Apr 1884), a minor, under the Regency of his mother, Infanta Maria Luisa, but was forced to abdicate 10 Dec 1807. Former Empress Marie-Louise, separated wife of Napoleon I was given the Duchy of Parma in 1815 and founded the Parmesan Constantinian Order of Saint George 1816. By article 101 of the Treaty of Vienna of 9 Jun 1815 Duke Carlo Lodovico was given the Duchy of Lucca, in compensation for the loss of Parma (accorded to the former Empress Marie-Louise of the French for her lifetime), but deposed 15 Oct 1847. He was cr Infant of Spain by the Carlist claimant Carlos "V" 17 Jul 1834, and reacquired the Duchy of Parma 17 Dec 1847 (by the reversionary article of the Treaty of Paris of 10 Jun 1817) following the death of the Empress Marie-Louise, but after being deposed in an insurrection, abdicated in favour of his son Charles III 14 Mar 1849. Charles III was cr Infant of Spain by Isabel II 8 Oct 1852 and assassinated 27 Mar 1854. His son and successor Robert I (see below) was cr Infant of Spain 19 May 1854. Territories of the duchies were annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1859; formal protestation of the annexation was made by the Duchess Regent, on behalf of her son Robert I, 20 Jun 1860. Succession is by male primogeniture among the descendants of Philip, Duke of Parma, and failing them to the other male descendants of Philip V of Spain and Isabel Farnese.
Members of the Ducal Family bear the title of Prince or Princess of Bourbon-Parma with the qualification of Royal Highness.
Arms:- Quarterly of ten: 1st, or, six fleurs-de-lys az, three, two and one (Farnese); 2nd, arg, a cross patee gu, between four eagles displayed sa, beaked and membered gu (Gonzaga for Guastalla); 3rd, az, a lion bendy gu and arg, crowned or (Rossi di San Secondo); 4th, or, six torteaux, one, two, two and one, the chiefmost absconded by a heurte charged with three fleurs-de-lys or, the other five gu (Medici); 5th, per fesse gu and or, and over all a bush without leaves, sa (Malaspina); 6th, arg, an eagle sa, beaked and membered gu, crowned or, charged on the breast with an escutcheon gu, a cross arg (Savoy); 7th, gu a fess arg (Correggio); 8th, cheeky gu and arm, or a chief or, a double-headed eagle sa, beaked and membered gu (Pallavicini); 9th, gu, a cross or, between four letters B or (Paleologue); 10th, grand-quarters, lst and 4th, paly of six or and arg and over all a fesse arg 2nd and 3rd, or, three bars wavy az (Landi); over all an inescutcheon of pretence, counter quarter, lst and 4th, gu, a castle or, masoned sa, port and fenestration az (Castile); 2nd and 3rd arg, a lion rampant gu, armed, langued and crowned or (Leon), and over all an escutcheon of pretence, az, three fleurs-de-lys or, a bordure gu, charged with eight scallops arg (Bourbon-Anjou). The shield is encircled with the collar of the Order of Constantine of Parma and ensigned by the Royal Crown. Motto: Deus et dies.
Order: Constantinian Order of Saint George (2 div, 3 cl); Order of San Luigi (3 cl).
GENEALOGY OF THE BRANCH OF BOURBON-PARMA
TO CARLISM, and the claims of CARLOS-HUGO de BORBÓN-PARMA
CARLISM & CARLOS-HUGO de BORBÓN-PARMA, now DUKE OF PARMA
Some facts concerning the Carlist claims of S.A.R. Don Hugo di Borbone, Duca di Parma (formerly styled S.A.R Don Carlos-Hugo de Borbón y Borbón-Busset, Príncipe de Asturias, Duque de Madrid y San Jaime, Infante de España, Caballero de la Toisón de Oro).
On the 5 May 1957 Carlos-Hugo stated "Faithful to my ancestors, faithful to my father the king, you must know that with the held of God, I shall accomplish the hopes and sacrifices that are imposed by the title of prince of the Asturias, which legitimacy has caused to descend to me".
At the time the Prince of the Asturias was H.R.H. Don Juan Carlos de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, now King of Spain.
Meanwhile, on 20 Dec 1957, 44 Carlist notables visited Estoril to pledge their allegiance to Don Juan, Count of Barcelona (father of the present King), as Carlist heir.
Carlos-Hugo, in a letter to a friend at this time wrote: "I am convinced that Carlism must make a revolution and change form this revolution only I can do." He and his father then approached Franco to try and gain his support for their cause.
The Count of Barcelona, in letters to Europe's royal houses, asked that no-one co-operate with Xavier and his son Carlos-Hugo, pointing out that they could not claim to be Spanish dynasts because of Xavier's unequal marriage (the Bourbon-Busset are an illegitimate line of a junior branch of the Bourbon family). He also asked the assistance of Elio, Duke of Parma, who wrote (31 July 1958):
"My quality as a Spaniard by naturalization does not permit me to intervene directly in the problems of the future of our dear Spain, and more particularly, the monarchical institution. The ties that unite me to this are such that in certain circumstances and conforming to the laws of primogeniture and legitimacy defended by our ancestors, the rights to the crown could return to me. And that, (I have) preference over every other Prince of Bourbon-Parma, because, I am the head of this House and I am a Spaniard as I have indicated. I do not intend to impose any successorial problem and I recall only the facts that give considerable authority to my recognition of the eventual rights of Don Juan de Borbón, in declaring that I consider a usurper anyone who opposes these rights".
He died the following year, and his son Robert II succeeded. The latter wrote soon after his succession, "If the Crown of Spain falls one day to the House of Parma, it will come to me as I am the Head and I am Spanish". His father Élie had not recognized the marriage of Xavier, and had refused to give his wife the title of Royal Highness (because of inequality, not because of the Carlist claim). At a meeting with Xavier in 1960, at the time of the wedding of Princess Françoise to Prince Edouard de Lobkowicz, Duke Robert was asked to unite the family and recognize his marriage, and consequently the successorial rights of Xavier's issue. Robert graciously consented and, in a letter dated 22 Aug 1961 written to (Constantinian Bailiff and former Spanish Ambassador) Albert de Mestas "I am not married and have no issue, my uncle Xavier is indubitably my eventual successor. His children have always born the titles of Prince (or Princesses) of Parma". He reiterated, however, his belief that Xavier was a usurper and enunciated to his family his sincere regret that Xavier had ignored his pleas to unite behind the Count of Barcelona.
Carlos-Hugo and his father, however, were not Spanish citizens. Franco tolerated their activities because it suited him politically to encourage disunity among the Monarchists, whom he did not want to unite behind Don Juan. Under Spanish law they could not succeed to the Crown unless they were citizens. There was a good argument to be made that they were in fact citizens since the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1801 conferred citizenship on all Princes of the House of Bourbon, but they instead petitioned Franco for citizenship, which he simply postponed deciding upon.
Meanwhile Xavier's daughters Princesses Cécile, Marie-Thérèse and Marie des Neiges became more and more active in promoting first Carlism, and then their increasingly left-wing ideas. They moved to Spain, and learnt the language. Princess Françoise, now married, stepped aside in deference to the wishes of Duke Robert and concentrated on her charitable work and raising her family. Carlos Hugo increasingly concerned himself with domestic Spanish politics, raising money to finance his cause and living in an apartment in Madrid, coincidentally in the same building as the leading Francoist Admiral Carrero Blanco (eventually assassinated in the early 1970s). The building always had police guards, giving a sense of importance to the apparent status of Prince Carlos-Hugo who with the help of some sympathetic journalists managed to get frequent publicity for his activities and anti-Don Juan statements.
In 1962 Juan Carlos and his family traveled to Athens for his wedding, attended by most of Europe's royal families. Franco, seeking to counter the massive publicity that reinforced the position of Don Juan, invited Carlos Hugo to their first meeting. Franco now let Don Juan know, in his words, that "I have another candidate". Encouraged, Carlos-Hugo, his mother and sisters turned up at Montejurra in 1963, Princess Xavier being styled Queen and "Majesty" before a crowd of 24,000 Carlists. They even founded a new "Order", the Cross of Forbidden Legitimacy, as a dynastic Order! Xavier took the title of "Count of Molina", while "conferring" that of Duke of Madrid and San Jaime on Carlos-Hugo and Duke of Aranjuez on Sisto. The latter later enrolled in the Spanish foreign legion as Enrique Aranjuez, because, as a Frenchman, he could not join the regular army; under Spanish law, however, if he took the oath to the flag he could later legally apply for citizenship (whereupon he resigned from the Legion without actually applying).
Carlos-Hugo now began to move away from collaborating with Franco, and began to attack Juan Carlos as a Francoist puppet. He presented his side as federalist in spirit, socially and traditionally close to the people, attacking Don Juan as liberal, centralist, favorable to capitalism and the establishment.
Following a disastrous floods in Catalonia Marie-Therese and Cecile offered their services to Caritas relief, Juan Carlos and his wife attended the funeral service for the victims and visited the site of the disaster where they were pelted with tomatoes by young Carlist enthusiasts. Later attending another event in Catalonia, they were struck by rotten vegetables. In an event in a theater, Marie des Neiges appeared in the opposite box to Juan Carlos and Sophie, the theater erupted when more young supporters of Carlos Hugo shouted slogans, and the Prince of the Asturias and his wife were forced to leave. The Carlist newspaper published an article with photographs of the two princes, describing Carlos-Hugo as "Prince of the House of Borbón, Infant of Spain, but never able to obtain the justice of being legally considered Spanish", and Juan Carlos as a "Prince who has obtained the quality of legally being Spaniard although born outside Spain". The fact that Carlos-Hugo was born in Paris was ignored. Juan Carlos was criticized in the article for having been educated at Military academies, but having (purportedly) done badly in school, and for living in a Palace that belonged to the state without the consent of the public or the Cortes or government (while, it was pointed out, Carlos Hugo was living in a simple apartment).
Carlos-Hugo next announced his marriage to Princess Irene of the Netherlands, whose mother was the wealthiest sovereign in Europe, and who, although a Protestant, announced her conversion to Catholicism. She had been a bridesmaid to Sophie of Greece at her wedding to Juan Carlos. As she had not asked permission from Parliament to marry, the Dutch parliament declared her automatically excluded from the succession. While Prince Bernhard promised Don Juan that unless Carlos Hugo renounced his claims she would not be allowed to marry, the couple ignored her father and were married in Rome on 29 April 1964 in the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in front of 5000 Carlist supporters. The Dutch royal family boycotted the marriage as did most royal houses, although the groom's parents and sisters attended, as did the Empress Zita (his aunt) and, to the surprise of many, Dom Duarte Nuño, Duke of Braganza, who had temporarily fallen out with Don Juan. The Duke of Parma refused to attend; Don Juan had conferred upon him the rank of a Knight of the Golden Fleece two months earlier and it was known that the groom would be wearing the Spanish Order, to which he was not entitled (the photographs of the wedding showing him with the badge of the Golden Fleece).
On their honeymoon Irene shocked the Spanish public by being photographed in a bikini, then considered indecent and causing much comment in the press (to the amazement of the Princess herself who had worn one without comment in her own country). This did not go down well in conservative Spain, and on their return the announcement of their audience with General Franco described them as "Princess Irene of Holland and her husband". This represented a final breach with Franco and Carlos-Hugo began to change the political orientation of Carlism towards the left. At the same time the activities of Irene and her husband led to an open breach with Princess Sophia, whom she had known all her life. Carlos-Hugo now also broke with his father, who was still tied to the "traditional" Carlism. Xavier had advised his followers to vote "Yes" in the referendum of 1966, which confirmed the establishment of the Francoist state and allowed the General to nominate the future King. Carlos-Hugo, through his political organization, now issued a proclamation that any Princes who supported this would be deprived of the "legitimacy of the exercise" of their rights, thereby deposing his own father.
The Parmesan Carlists were now hopelessly divided and Xavier caused further problems by publicly supporting the separatist movement in Catalonia and the Basque provinces. This was a step too far for Franco, who had fought the Civil War in the name of Spanish unity; on 26 December 1967 the Parma princes were expelled from Spain, for "contravening the terms of their temporary residence".
In July 1969 Juan Carlos was proclaimed Prince of Spain and, from his exile in Paris, Carlos Hugo began a series of attacks upon the new Prince of Spain and the future Monarchy they felt he would embody. He was supported in this by his sisters, with the exception of Françoise, while his brother Sisto continued to support the "traditional" Carlism supposedly led by their father. The last occasion on which the whole family was present together was for the baptism of the "Infante" Carlos Javier, heir to the self-styled "Prince of the Asturias," also attended by Queen Juliana, the child's godmother, and the rest of the Dutch royal family.
On 8 April 1975 Xavier "abdicated" in favor of Carlos-Hugo. The remaining leaders of the Tradition now demanded that Carlos Hugo announce his adhesion to their traditions, but he did not respond and they declared him deprived of his right to lead them. On 24 Jan 1977 he wrote: "I have renounced nothing. These are matters which one cannot renounce because they do not belong to the patrimony of any individual."
Sisto meanwhile seems to have become more involved with the extreme right and was accused by his elder brother of having sequestrated their father in the monastery of Solêsmes (1977). This provoked an outraged protest from their mother, who published a statement on 7 March 1977 accusing Carlos-Hugo of trying to remove his father from hospital and force him to sign a statement recognizing him as his heir, and of falsely accusing Sisto of keeping him against his will. It is impossible to be sure who was right, but on 4 March Xavier had signed a manifesto condemning his elder son's increasingly extreme politics, while just three days later (after Carlos-Hugo and his sister removed their father from hospital) he named Carlos-Hugo as his heir in all his "claims".
Xavier died on 7 May 1977; Carlos-Hugo in his announcement to the courts of Europe did not mention his Carlist claims, only the title of Duke of Parma knowing that any other claims would not be acknowledged. The arms on the heading of the paper, however, were those of the Royal House of Spain surrounded by the Golden Fleece. Carlos-Hugo, Cécile, Marie-Thérèse and Marie des Neiges were never forgiven by their mother for what she considered disloyal actions that had hastened their father's death. Before she died of cancer in 1984 she ordered that these four of her children should not be allowed to enter the château after her death, and bequeathed her estate to Sisto (who inherited Lignières) and Françoise. At her funeral they were forced to stand outside the gates while their mother's coffin was carried by.
In 1976 Carlos-Hugo tried to return to Spain but, at the airport, was informed that the decree of expulsion was still in force. The Carlists now divided; the "Traditionalist Communion" was headed by Sisto, the "Carlist Party" by Carlos-Hugo.
In early 1978, nearly 3 years after Juan Carlos had become King, Carlos Hugo wrote: "I address all Carlists, without any distinction, as your King, and as representative of the legitimate dynasty, to call you to unity and invite you to work to recover our liberties. Carlism has the responsibility of continuing to serve the people; it is the moment for us to regroup around the federal idea that was always the ideal of Carlism". Shortly afterwards, on 7 March 1978, he was received by the King at the Oriente Palace, in a private audience. He asked the King for Spanish citizenship but the King did not respond directly. On leaving, he stated: "Neither myself, nor my family, nor the political interests which we attribute to ourselves, have, at this time, any ambition to occupy the place occupied by Juan Carlos. The facts are the facts. He is today the head of State and we have not been asked, neither ourselves, nor the people". On 5 Jan 1979 "Carlos de Borbón-Parma y Borbón" was conceded Spanish nationality in a generous gesture by the King which did not, however, acknowledge the title of Duke of Parma nor the style Royal Highness.
Carlos and his family acquired a house outside Madrid and the party he headed became increasingly left-wing in its proposals. On 28 April 1980 he resigned as President and as a member of the Carlist party, stating, in his letter: "Sir, I inform you officially that by the present act I no longer belong to the Carlist party. This is final. Receive my best wishes. Carlos-Hugo de Borbón." The following year he and Irene divorced. His sisters Marie-Thérèse and Marie des Neiges, both living in Spain, have pursued academic careers; the former is a professor of political science at Madrid University, specializing in the Islamic world of North Africa, the latter has a Doctorate in Biology specializing in Mediterranean island fauna and flora. Princess Cécile has recently interested herself in her family history and has volunteered for the Order of Malta. None of them have publicly expressed any regret for their actions in the 1950-70s. Such was the uncertainty concerning whether Carlos-Hugo still claims his assumed Spanish titles that, in 1987, a royal decree was issued stating: "No other person can be titles Prince or Princess of the Asturias, nor Infante of Spain, nor receive the treatment and honors that are attached to the preceding dignities" other than those authorized by the law.
In the end it was King Juan Carlos, however, who restored democracy in Spain, who defended the liberties of the people, and who initiated the new Federal constitution which gave autonomy to the regions. It was he who stood up to the military and assured Spain's future as a democratic constitutional Monarchy. No other expression of regret or withdrawal has ever been offered by the present Duke of Parma for his actions.